2. General approaches (1). Designing anti-corruption measures: power, flexibility and long-term planning

Summary of recommendations

When designing anti-corruption approaches, go beyond the technical issues to focus on understanding centres of power supported by corrupt practices. Identify the power centres and networks enabling and benefiting from corruption, and support alternative centres of power that could curtail their reach.

As conditions and incentives change, be prepared to regularly modify and improve anti-corruption programming.

Plan and budget for the necessary anti-corruption measures and specialist expertise from the outset, especially in high-risk environments.

Introduction to key mitigation

While particular manifestations of corruption usually need specific measures to target them and specific corruption risks call for corresponding ways of closing the loopholes, successful anti-corruption measures are likely to be based on general approaches that incorporate three key principles:

  • A focus on sources and centres of power;
  • Iterative designs;
  • Long-term planning and budgeting.

Costs and benefits

A long-term design that incorporates iteration and is sensitive to power relations is likely to have a significant price tag. Its outcomes will also carry a degree of uncertainty, and implementation will need to be reviewed and adjusted on a regular basis. However, one major benefit will be that the design will be realistic and likely to shape more realistic expectations of the pace and scale of change. It will help inform sound decision-making; awareness of what is needed and when can also help secure appropriate levels of resources for a longer period of time.

Constituent mitigations for:

2. General approaches (1). Designing anti-corruption measures: power, flexibility and long-term planning

These constituent mitigations provide further guidance on effective anti-corruption mitigation measures for military operations.

2.1 Focusing on sources and centres of power

Anti-corruption interventions, and mitigations applied to safeguard missions against supporting corrupt practices, need to be tailored to where particular challenges lie.

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2.2 Choosing your partners: marginalising spoilers, supporting change agents

Where possible, cooperate with partners who are willing to support legitimate and effective governance. Limit the flow of resources and support to those who benefit from corruption.

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2.3 Staying one step ahead: horizon scanning and iterative approaches

Limiting the reach and severity of corrupt practices will likely need an approach that can cut off opportunities for corruption as they develop.

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2.4 Planning and budgeting for the long term

In order to make anti-corruption measures most sustainable and cost-effective, mission planning should consider and budget for them from the outset.

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2.5 Leading by example: demonstrating the importance of integrity

The mission should implement and model behaviours, practices and procedures that include and where necessary, prioritise anti-corruption and pro-integrity measures.

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2.6 Communicating anti-corruption: the role of StratCom

A consistent communications strategy can help promote integrity-based behaviours, publicly and privately condemn corrupt practices, and set expectations on standards.

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