Constituent Mitigations

9.2 Overseeing donor funds: End-use monitoring of equipment

In environments with a high risk of corruption, donor-led monitoring schemes for materiel can help limit the opportunities of diversion and fraud, and help ensure that donated equipment gets to frontline units able to use them. In the longer term, donor oversight can serve as a model for recipient nations’ own oversight institutions. Especially when combined with conditionality and continued pressure for improvement, end-use monitoring can help improve host nation standards.


Case Study: Making the system work: security assistance to Ukraine, 2014-2017

Blue Lantern and Golden Sentry programmes: Ukraine

In the US, transfers of equipment related to security assistance are overseen through the Blue Lantern and Golden Sentry programmes, run by the State and Defense Departments respectively. Both programmes enable US personnel to verify, either through inventories or physical checks, that equipment passed to local forces through security assistance programmes is utilised and stored in accordance with previously agreed procedures. Following 3 years of security assistance programmes incorporating monitoring and conditionality in Ukraine, donors reported significant improvements in the Ukrainian defence institutions’ ability to track and account for materiel.

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Case Study: Corruption and Plan Colombia: The Missing Link

End-use monitoring: Plan Colombia

During Plan Colombia, US officials could request access to all donated equipment to ensure its location and application. US personnel were also located in Colombian military bases, helping ensure oversight of US-owned and donated equipment. With the US Embassy regularly reporting on suspected incident of corruption or diversion, the monitoring served as a deterrent against abuse of power.

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Key Personnel

  • J2
  • J4
  • J6
  • audit units