3. General approaches (2). Preparatory measures and planning for anti-corruption

Summary of recommendations

Ensure anti-corruption is a consideration in analysis, planning and force generation from the very outset. Avoid compromising accountability and oversight while prioritising short-term outcomes.

Introduction to key mitigation

In past operations, anti-corruption measures have not been included in initial mission tasks or responsibilities. Even though they could well be thought of as implied tasks – given that corruption would make achieving other goals related to peace, security and development more difficult – the lack of explicit tasking meant that they were usually overlooked. This approach has often meant that missions went into theatre unprepared for the risks that corruption was going to create and ill-equipped to respond to them, especially in volatile environments.

As mission staffs prepare to deploy, corruption risks should be part of the operational threat assessment. Responses to identified threats, be that in the form of mitigation measures or readiness to track risks, need to be translated into standard operating procedures and included in operational- and tactical-level instructions.

Costs and benefits

Consideration of corruption as an element of the environment, as well as of links between mission activities and corrupt practices, could require some additional time and expertise from planning staff and the Command Group. However, many militaries already consider corruption as a factor in their threat and mission assessments, usually under the ‘governance’ heading; what could therefore be needed is an effort to tease out the impact of corrupt practices, rather than a wholesale change in how planning is done. Intelligence analysts should also be able to adapt their usual practice – especially the analysis of networks and individual motivations – to include issues related to corrupt practices.

Explicitly addressing corruption in the planning process from the outset will help create a fuller picture of the operational theatre and of the deployed force, meaning that stakeholder actions can be interpreted more accurately, and motivations better discerned. It can also help draw attention to longer-term consequences of mission actions that could otherwise be overlooked, and help design better-focused operations with more realistic goals and timelines.

Constituent mitigations for:

3. General approaches (2). Preparatory measures and planning for anti-corruption

These constituent mitigations provide further guidance on effective anti-corruption mitigation measures for military operations.

3.1 Including corruption in mission threat assessment and mission analysis

Mission planners should include a corruption threat assessment in their analysis, identifying the implications that corruption can have on mission goals and on particular operations

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3.2 Making anti-corruption someone’s job: the importance of ownership

Make sure that mitigating corruption risks and its impact is someone’s job. Make sure others know whose job it is.

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3.3 Generating and using specific expertise, including civilian organisations

Staff abilities need to be supplemented by specialist skills needed to analyse concrete manifestations of corruption, the reach and vertical integration of corrupt networks, and financial flows.

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3.4 Establishing dedicated anti-corruption task-forces

Specialist anti-corruption task forces can help shape and coordinate approaches to mitigating the impact of corrupt practices.

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3.5 Preserving existing oversight measures

The potential immediate gains of relaxing anti-corruption controls in higher tempo fragile environments, needs to be weighed against the risk of exacerbating long-term instability.

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3.6 Preparing tactical guidance and standard operating procedures

Better preparedness is likely to require changes in standard operating procedures and instructions that could shape both mission planning and troop behaviour on the ground.

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3.7 Ensuring operational continuity and information management

Ensuring appropriate handover periods, using easily accessible databases, and reducing personnel rotation ensures continuity in anti-corruption efforts.

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